Can you help w/ a response? 150 word minimum. 1- in text citation and 1 reference.
Endocrine Function Case Study
C.B. is an overweight 48-year-old female from the Winnebago Indian tribe that was diagnosed with high blood sugar at 141 and high cholesterol at 225, approximately 3 years ago. Because she was
not experiencing any clinical manifestations, she did not feel that she needed to follow up nor did she take any medications due to cost. C.B. presents today with weakness and numbness to her left foot
for approximately 3 weeks and also states that it is difficult to flex. C.B. does report she has also had “female infections” in the past. She reports she has been very thirsty and gets up more often at night to
urinate. She has also gained a total of 65 pounds over the last 14 years, with 15 pounds just over the last six months.
In which race and ethnic groups is DM more prevalent? Based on C.B. clinical manifestations, please compile the signs and symptoms that she is exhibiting that are compatible with the Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diagnosis.
Diabetes, short for diabetes mellitus (DM), is a condition that results with elevated levels of sugar in the blood which can be caused by many factors related to insulin and its relationship with glucose
in the body. There are three types of DM though type 2 accounts for 90%-95% of DM cases (Dlugasch & Story, 2020). Risk factors for developing type 2 DM can be related to lifestyle such as obesity,
poor nutrition, and inactivity but it is very important to note the many uncontrollable risk factors. Those of ethnic decent are more at risk for developing type 2 DM including Blacks, Native Americans,
Asians, Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Latinos. Increased incidence of developing DM type 2 is also related to aging, family history, and a sedentary lifestyle (Khan et al., 2022). Clinical manifestations
that C.B. is experiencing that align with those related to DM include, feeling asymptomatic for a period of time before diagnosis, feeling of increased thirst, increased urination, along with being obese
(Dlugasch & Story, 2020). C.B. also presents with weakness and numbness to her right foot that requires further investigation as DM increases risk for diabetic neuropathy and this may be a sign of DM
(Sarwar et al., 2022). DM also increases risk of opportunistic infections which correlates with C.B.’s reported “female infections” (Lao et al., 2020).
If C.B. develop a bacterial pneumonia on her right lower lobe, how would you expect her Glycemia values to be? Explain and support your answer.
DM type 2 increases one’s risk for developing infections though it is important to understand the effects of infection on glucose levels. If C.B. were to develop bacterial pneumonia, her body would
work to fight the infection by releasing glucose into the bloodstream. A person without DM would simply produce more insulin though a person with DM type 2 has a dysfunction with insulin excretion
and therefore, we would see that she would have a higher blood glucose level (Lao et al., 2020).
What would be the best initial therapy non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic to be recommended to C.B?
Education regarding the disease process of DM is imperative for the success of DM management. Face to face education, resources and references to send home and a dietitian referral would be an
appropriate starting point. C.B. would need immediate education regarding diet including types and amount of fluid to drink daily along with ways to increase her activity level. DM type 2 can be treated
with oral medications, such as metformin, and can also include insulin. C.B. would need to be educated on how to monitor her blood sugar levels at home and will need immediate education on how to
recognize signs and symptoms of high and low blood sugar. It will be important for C.B. to know that once she starts medication, it may decrease blood sugar drastically, therefore it is very important for
her to monitor and be able to recognize symptoms (Yasmut, & Adas, 2022).